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Hydrogen peroxide



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Product details:

- Product Name: Hydrogen peroxide

- Formulas : H2O2

- Chemical composition : Korea-50%-30kg

- Product Type: Chemicals for waste water

Product description :

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond). It is also a strong oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. In dilute solution, it appears colorless. Due to its oxidizing properties, hydrogen peroxide is often used as a bleach or cleaning agent. The oxidizing capacity of hydrogen peroxide is so strong that it is considered a highly reactive oxygen species. Hydrogen peroxide is therefore used as a propellant in rocketry.[1] Organisms also naturally produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product of oxidative metabolism. Consequently, nearly all living things (specifically, all obligate and facultative aerobes) possess enzymes known as catalyse peroxidases, which harmlessly and catalytically decompose low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

Uses
Municipal wastewater applications
For over 50 years the standard way to deal with odors entering wastewater treatment plants was to pre-chlorinate the influent sewers. Recently, however, an increasing number of POTWs have revisited this issue and come up with a different answer - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Their results show that hydrogen peroxide can replace chlorine with little to no increase in costs, and with notable benefits to downstream operations. At least four studies have been conducted at large municipalities which identify the factors that led them to hydrogen peroxide for liquid-phase headworks odor control. [1]
Cost Effective Control of Hydrogen Sulfide in Municipal Sludge
In many municipal treatment facilities, the processing of wastewater sludge (or biosolids) poses operational and safety challenges due to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation. In addition to being a hazard to operations personnel (H2S is a poisonous gas), H2S odors generated during sludge processing can cause community complaints and make plant working conditions unpleasant. Furthermore, damage to equipment and concrete structures caused by H2S initiated corrosion can be substantial. Typical areas where H2S problems occur include gravity thickeners, mix tanks, and dewatering presses.
Hydrogen sulfide is generated in sludge via the same mechanism as in collection systems - conversion of sulfates to sulfides by bacteria. This biochemical generation of H2S is brought about by anaerobic or oxygen limited conditions. There are numerous chemical and non-chemical treatment technologies available which can control H2S in municipal sludge processing operations. [2]
Industrial applications
ISO tank container for hydrogen peroxide transportation
About 50% of the worlds production of hydrogen peroxide in 1994 was used for pulp- and paper-bleaching.[12] Other bleaching applications are becoming more important as hydrogen peroxide is seen as an environmentally benign alternative to chlorine-based bleaches.[citation needed]
Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide
Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Oxidation
BOD and COD Removal in Wastewater Using Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide has been used to reduce the BOD and COD of industrial wastewaters for many years. While the cost of removing BOD/COD through chemical oxidation is typically greater than that through physical or biological means, there are nonetheless specific situations which justify its use. These include:
  • Predigestion of wastewaters which contain moderate to high levels of compounds that are toxic, inhibitory, or recalcitrant to biological treatment (e.g., pesticides, plasticizers, resins, coolants, and dyestuffs)
  • Pretreatment of high strength / low flow wastewaters – where biotreatment may not be practical – prior to discharge to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW)
  • Enhanced separation of entrained organics by flotation and settling processes and
Supply of supplemental Dissolved Oxygen (DO) when biological treatment systems experience temporary overloads or equipment failure.
As indicated by these examples, H2O2 can be used as a stand-alone treatment or as an enhancement to existing physical or biological treatment processes, depending on the situation. BOD-COD Removal
High Strength Wastewater Pretreatment
Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most versatile, dependable and environmentally compatible oxidizing agents. The relative safety and simplicity of its use as an oxidizing agent has led to the development of a number of applications in refinery wastewater systems.
“Uncatalyzed” Hydrogen Peroxide The strong oxidizing power of H2O2 makes it suitable for the destruction of a variety of pollutants. Optimization of conditions using H2O2 to destroy these pollutants can involve control of pH, temperature and reaction time. No additional additives are required.
“Catalyzed” Hydrogen Peroxide Pollutants that are more difficult to oxidize require H2O2 to be activated with catalysts such as iron. Catalyzed oxidation can also be used to destroy easily oxidized pollutants more rapidly.
Under acid pH conditions, the addition of iron salts to a wastewater solution activates H2O2 to generate free radicals, which can attack a variety of organic compounds. Other metal salts and conditions can apply (e.g. in cyanide destruction, a copper catalyst can be used at a pH of 8.5 - 11.5). High Strength Wastewater Pretreatment
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Abatement with Hydrogen Peroxide
Nitrogen oxides are major pollutants in the atmosphere, being a precursor to acid rain, photochemical smog, and ozone accumulation. The oxides are mainly nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) both of which are corrosive and hazardous to health. With the use of catalytic converters on automobiles, the initial regulatory focus of controlling of mobile NOx emissions has reached the point where further restriction has become economically impractical. Consequently, the stationary sources of NOx emissions are now being subjected to more stringent standards in many areas of the U.S. Stationary sources include nitric acid manufacturing plants, manufacturers of nitrated materials such as fertilizer and explosives, and industrial manufacturers (metallurgical processors, glass manufacturers, cement kilns, power generators, etc.) where high processing temperatures are used. Because of the environmental concerns posed by air pollution, a great deal of research time and money has been expended to develop methods for controlling NOx emissions. Nitrogen Oxide Abatement (NOx)
Other major industrial applications for hydrogen peroxide include the manufacture of sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate, used as mild bleaches in laundry detergents. It is used in the production of certain organic peroxides, such as dibenzoyl peroxide, used in polymerisations and other chemical processes. Hydrogen peroxide is also used in the production of epoxides, such as propylene oxide. Reaction with carboxylic acids produces a corresponding peroxy acid. Peracetic acid and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (commonly abbreviated mCPBA) are prepared from acetic acid and meta-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively. The latter is commonly reacted with alkenes to give the corresponding epoxide.
In the PCB manufacturing process, hydrogen peroxide mixed with sulfuric acid was used as the microetch chemical for copper surface roughening preparation.
A combination of a powdered precious metal-based catalyst, hydrogen peroxide, methanol and water can produce superheated steam in one to two seconds, releasing only CO2 and high-temperature steam for a variety of purposes.[19]
Recently, there has been increased use of vaporized hydrogen peroxide in the validation and bio-decontamination of half-suit and glove-port isolators in pharmaceutical production.
Nuclear pressurized water reactors (PWRs) use hydrogen peroxide during the plant shutdown to force the oxidation and dissolution of activated corrosion products deposited on the fuel. The corrosion products are then removed with the cleanup systems before the reactor is disassembled.
Hydrogen peroxide is also used in the oil and gas exploration industry to oxidize rock matrix in preparation for micro-fossil analysis.
Chemical applications
A method of producing propylene oxide from hydrogen peroxide has been developed. The process is claimed to be environmentally friendly, since the only significant byproduct is water. It is also claimed the process has significantly lower investment and operating costs. Two of these "HPPO" (hydrogen peroxide to propylene oxide) plants came onstream in 2008: One of them located in Belgium is a Solvay, Dow-BASF joint venture, and the other in Korea is a EvonikHeadwaters, SK Chemicals joint venture. A caprolactam application for hydrogen peroxide has been commercialized. Potential routes to phenol and epichlorohydrin utilizing hydrogen peroxide have been postulated.[14]
Biological function
Hydrogen peroxide is also one of the two chief chemicals in the defense system of the bombardier beetle, reacting with hydroquinone to discourage predators.
A study published in Nature found that hydrogen peroxide plays a role in the immune system. Scientists found that hydrogen peroxide inside of cells increased after tissues are damaged in zebra fish, which is thought to act as a signal to white blood cells to converge on the site and initiate the healing process. When the genes required to produce hydrogen peroxide were disabled, white blood cells did not accumulate at the site of damage. The experiments were conducted on fish however, because fish are genetically similar to humans, the same process is speculated to occur in humans. The study in Nature suggested asthma sufferers have higher levels of hydrogen peroxide in their lungs than healthy people, which could explain why asthma sufferers have inappropriate levels of white blood cells in their lungs.[20][21]
Hydrogen peroxide has important roles as a signaling molecule in the regulation of a variety of biological processes.[22] Hydrogen peroxide also plays an important role in aging[23] and cancer.[24]
Domestic uses
Fingertips
Skin immediately after exposure to 30% H2O2
  • Diluted H2O2 (between 3% and 8%) is used to bleach human hair when mixed with ammonium hydroxide, hence the phrase "peroxide blonde".
  • It is absorbed by skin upon contact and creates a local skin capillary embolism that appears as a temporary whitening of the skin.
  • It is used to whiten bones that are to be put on display.
  • 6% (20-vol) is useful for disinfecting cuts and to stop bleeding for relatively superficial cuts.
  • 3% H2O2 is effective at treating fresh (red) blood-stains in clothing and on other items. It must be applied to clothing before blood stains can be accidentally "set" with heated water. Cold water and soap are then used to remove the peroxide treated blood.
  • Some horticulturalists and users of hyonics advocate the use of weak hydrogen peroxide solution in watering solutions. Its spontaneous decomposition releases oxygen that enhances a plants root development and helps to treat root rot (cellular root death due to lack of oxygen) and a variety of other pests.[25][26][27]
  • Laboratory tests conducted by fish culturists in recent years have demonstrated that common household hydrogen peroxide can be used safely to provide oxygen for small fish.[28][29] Hydrogen peroxide releases oxygen by decomposition when it is exposed to catalysts such as manganese dioxide.
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidizer effective in controlling sulfide and organic-related odors in wastewater collection and treatment systems. It is typically applied to a wastewater system where there is a retention time of 30 minutes to 5 hours before hydrogen sulfide is released. Hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide and promotes bio-oxidation of organic odors. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to oxygen and water, adding dissolved oxygen to the system, thereby negating some Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).
  • Mixed with baking soda and a small amount of hand soap, hydrogen peroxide is effective at removing skunk odor.[30]
  • Hydrogen peroxide is used with phenyl oxalate ester and an appropriate dye in glow sticks as an oxidizing agent. It reacts with the ester to form an unstable CO2 dimer, which excites the dye to an excited state the dye emits a photon (light) when it spontaneously relaxes back to the ground state.
  • Hydrogen peroxide can be combined with vinegar and table salt to form a substitute for industrial chemicals such as ferric chloride, ammonium persulfate, or hydrochloric acid as a hobbyists printed circuit board etchant.[31]
  • Hydrogen peroxide can be used to clean tile and grout on floors. Sometimes it is recommended to clean with baking soda together with the hydrogen peroxide.[32]
Propellant
For more details on this topic, see High test peroxide.
Rocket Belt hydrogen peroxide propulsion system used in a jet pack
High concentration H2O2 is referred to as HTP or High test peroxide. It can be used either as a monopropellant (not mixed with fuel) or as the oxidizer component of a bipropellant rocket. Use as a monopropellant takes advantage of the decomposition of 70–98+% concentration hydrogen peroxide into steam and oxygen. The propellant is pumped into a reaction chamber where a catalyst, usually a silver or platinum screen, triggers decomposition, producing steam at over 600 °C (1,112 °F), which is expelled through a nozzle, generating thrust. H2O2 monopropellant produces a maximum specific impulse (Isp) of 161 s (1.6 kN·s/kg), which makes it a low-performance monopropellant. Peroxide generates much less thrust than hydrazine. The Bell Rocket Belt used hydrogen peroxide monopropellant.
As a bipropellant H2O2 is decomposed to burn a fuel as an oxidizer. Specific impulses as high as 350 s (3.5 kN·s/kg) can be achieved, depending on the fuel. Peroxide used as an oxidizer gives a somewhat lower Isp than liquid oxygen, but is dense, storable, noncryogenic and can be more easily used to drive gas turbines to give high pressures using an efficient closed cycle. It can also be used for regenerative cooling of rocket engines. Peroxide was used very successfully as an oxidizer in World-War-II German rockets (e.g. T-Stoff, containing oxyquinoline stabilizer, for the Me-163), and for the low-cost British Black Knight and Black Arrow launchers.
In the 1940s and 1950s, the Walter turbine used hydrogen peroxide for use in submarines while submerged it was found to be too noisy and require too much maintenance compared to diesel-electric power systems. Some torpedoes used hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer or propellant, but this was dangerous and has been discontinued by most navies. Hydrogen peroxide leaks were blamed for the sinkings of HMS Sidon and the Russian submarine Kursk. It was discovered, for example, by the Japanese Navy in torpedo trials, that the concentration of H2O2 in right-angle bends in HTP pipework can often lead to explosions in submarines and torpedoes. SAAB Underwater Systems is manufacturing the Torpedo 2000. This torpedo, used by the Swedish navy, is powered by a piston engine propelled by HTP as an oxidizer and kerosene as a fuel in a bipropellant system.[33]
While rarely used now as a monopropellant for large engines, small hydrogen peroxide attitude control thrusters are still in use on some satellites.[citation needed] They are easy to throttle, and safer to fuel and handle before launch than hydrazine thrusters. However, hydrazine is more often used in spacecraft because of its higher specific impulse and lower rate of decomposition.
Therapeutic use
Hydrogen peroxide is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as an antimicrobial agent, an oxidizing agent and for other purposes by the U.S. FDA.[34] For example, 35% hydrogen peroxide is used to prevent infection transmission in the hospital environment, and hydrogen peroxide vapor is registered with the US EPA as a sporicidal sterilant.
It is a common misconception that hydrogen peroxide is a disinfectant or antiseptic for treating wounds.[35][36] While it is an effective cleaning agent, hydrogen peroxide is not an effective agent for reducing bacterial infection of wounds. Further, hydrogen peroxide applied to wounds can impede healing and lead to scarring because it destroys newly formed skin cells.[37]
  • Hydrogen peroxide can be used as a toothpaste, or oral debriding agent, when mixed with correct quantities of baking soda and salt. This use is no more effective than toothpaste alone, however.[38]
  • Hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide are sometimes used to treat acne.[39]
  • Hydrogen peroxide is used as an emetic in veterinary practice.[40][41]
Alternative uses
  • Following the call by alternative medicine advisors for drinking diluted hydrogen peroxide, and using it in various ways such as in shampoo and as an additive to toothpaste, as a treatment to illness in general and cancer in particular, the American Cancer Society states that "there is no scientific evidence that hydrogen peroxide is a safe, effective or useful cancer treatment", and advises cancer patients to "remain in the care of qualified doctors who use proven methods of treatment and approved clinical trials of promising new treatments."[42]
  • Another controversial alternative medical procedure is inhalation of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of about 1%. Intravenous usage of hydrogen peroxide has been linked to several deaths.[43][44]
Improvised explosive device / home-made bomb precursor
Hydrogen peroxide was the main ingredient in the 7 July 2005 London bombings that killed 52 London Underground and bus passengers. The bomb-making ingredients are reported to be easier to buy than large numbers of aspirin pills.[45]

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