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Methanol



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Product details:

- Product Name: Methanol

- Formulas : CH3OH

- Chemical composition : Arabsaudi-Technical grade-163kg

- Product Type: Chemical paint and ink

Product description :

Methanol, also known as methyl alcoholwood alcoholwood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatilecolorlessflammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to, but slightly sweeter than, ethanol (drinking alcohol).[4] At room temperature, it is a polar liquid, and is used as an antifreezesolventfuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol. It is also used for producing biodiesel via transesterification reaction.
Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties of bacteria, and is ubiquitous in the environment. As a result, there is a small fraction of methanol vapor in the atmosphere. Over the course of several days, atmospheric methanol is oxidized with the help of sunlight to carbon dioxide and water.
Methanol burns in air, forming carbon dioxide and water:
2 CH3OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 4 H2O
Because of its toxic properties, methanol is frequently used as a denaturant additive for ethanol manufactured for industrial uses — this addition of methanol exempts industrial ethanol from liquor excise taxation. Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood.
Applications
Methanol, a common laboratory solvent, is especially useful for HPLCUV/VIS spectroscopy, and LCMS due to its low UV cutoff.
[edit]Feedstock
The largest use of methanol by far is in making other chemicals. About 40% of methanol is converted to formaldehyde, and from there into products as diverse as plasticsplywood,paintsexplosives, and permanent press textiles.
Also in the early 1970s, a methanol to gasoline process was developed by Mobil for producing gasoline ready for use in vehicles. One such industrial facility was built at Motunui in New Zealand in the 1980s. In the 1990s, large amounts of methanol were used in the United States to produce the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). While MTBE is no longer marketed in the U.S., it is still widely used in other parts of the world. In addition to direct use as a fuel, methanol (or less commonly, ethanol) is used as a component in thetransesterification of triglycerides to yield a form of biodiesel.
Other chemical derivatives of methanol include dimethyl ether, which has replaced chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol spray propellant, and acetic acidDimethyl ether (DME) also can be blended with liquified petroleum gas (LPG) for home heating and cooking, and can be used as a diesel replacement for transportation fuel.
[edit]Fuel for vehicles
Main articles: Methanol fuel and methanol economy
Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion engines. Pure methanol is required by rule to be used in ChampcarsMonster TrucksUSAC sprint cars (as well as midgets, modifieds, etc.), and other dirt track series, such as World of Outlaws, and Motorcycle Speedway. Methanol is also used, as the primary fuel ingredient since the late 1940s, in the powerplants for radio controlcontrol line and free flight airplanes (as methanol is required in the engines that primarily power them), cars and trucks, from such an engines use of aplatinum filament glow plug being able to ignite the methanol vapor through a catalytic reaction. Drag racers and mud racers, as well as heavily modified tractor pullers, also use methanol as their primary fuel source. Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol dragster and, until the end of the 2006 season, all vehicles in the Indianapolis 500 had to run methanol. Mud racers have mixed methanol with gasoline and nitrous oxide to produce more power than gasoline and nitrous oxide alone.
One of the potential drawbacks of using high concentrations of methanol (and other alcohols, such as ethanol) in fuel is its corrosivity to some metals, particularly aluminium. Methanol, although a weak acid, attacks the oxide coating that normally protects the aluminum from corrosion:
6 CH3OH + Al2O3 → 2 Al(OCH3)3 + 3 H2O
The resulting methoxide salts are soluble in methanol, resulting in a clean aluminium surface, which is readily oxidized by dissolved oxygen. Also, the methanol can act as an oxidizer:
6 CH3OH + 2 Al → 2 Al(OCH3)3 + 3 H2
This reciprocal process effectively fuels corrosion until either the metal is eaten away or the concentration of CH3OH is negligible. Concerns with methanols corrosivity have been addressed by using methanol-compatible materials, and fuel additives that serve as corrosion inhibitors.
When produced from wood or other organic materials, the resulting organic methanol (bioalcohol) has been suggested as renewable alternative to petroleum-based hydrocarbons. Low levels of methanol can be used in existing vehicles, with the use of proper cosolvents and corrosion inhibitors. The European Fuel Quality Directive allows up to 3% methanol with an equal amount of cosolvent to be blending in gasoline sold in Europe. Today, China uses more than one billion gallons of methanol per year as a transportation fuel in both low level blends used in existing vehicles, and as high level blends in vehicles designed to accommodate the use of methanol fuels.
Because of climate change, alternatives to fossil fuels have been sought to run ground vehicles. Various alternatives have been proposed. Biofuels are carbon-neutral, but they require a great deal of fresh water to produce and are not practical in most climates. If a source of renewable or sustainable energy becomes available (including wind, solar and nuclear power), various chemical alternatives have been proposed to power ground vehicles in places of batteries. An example is a hydrogen economy. However, various alcohol-based economies, including a methanol based economy has been proposed in which artificially-produced methanol stores all power which cannot be directly used from sustainable sources, and also is used for ground transportation. The chief advantage of a methanol economy is that it could be adapted to present internal combustion engines with a minimum of modification in both engines and infrastructure to store and deliver liquid fuel.
In 2011, the Open Fuel Standard Act of 2011 was introduced into Congress to encourage car manufacturers to warrant their cars to burn methanol as a fuel in addition to gasoline and ethanol. The bill is being championed by the Open Fuel Standard Coalition.[citation needed]
[edit]Other applications
Methanol is a traditional denaturant for ethanol, the product being known as "methylated spirit".[8]
Methanol is also used as a solvent, and as an antifreeze in pipelines and windshield washer fluid.
In some wastewater treatment plants, a small amount of methanol is added to wastewater to provide a carbon food source for the denitrifying bacteria, which convert nitrates to nitrogen to reduce the nitrification of sensitive aquifers.
During World War II, methanol was used as a fuel in several German military rocket designs, under the name M-Stoff, and in a mixture known as C-Stoff.
Methanol was used as an automobile coolant antifreeze in the early 1900s.[9]
Methanol is used as a denaturing agent in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Direct-methanol fuel cells are unique in their low temperature, atmospheric pressure operation, allowing them to be miniaturized to an unprecedented degree. This, combined with the relatively easy and safe storage and handling of methanol may open the possibility of fuel cell-powered consumer electronics, such as for laptop computers and mobile phones.[10]
Methanol is also a widely used fuel in camping and boating stoves. Methanol burns well in an unpressurized burner, so alcohol stoves are often very simple, sometimes little more than a cup to hold fuel. This lack of complexity makes them a favorite of hikers who spend extended time in the wilderness.
Methanol is mixed with water and injected into high performance diesel engines for an increase of power and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature in a process known as water methanol injection.

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