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Activated carbon granular-Norit



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Product details:

- Product Name: Activated carbon granular-Norit

- Formulas : C

- Chemical composition : Holand-Technical grade-12.5kg

- Product Type: Industry chemicals

Product description :

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal or carbo activatus, is a form of carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to have a very large surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.[1]

The word activated in the name is sometimes replaced with active. Due to its high degree of microporosity, just 1 gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 500 m2 (about one tenth the size of a football field), as determined typically by nitrogen gas absorption. Sufficient activation for useful applications may come solely from the high surface area, though further chemical treatment often enhances the adsorbing properties of the material. Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal.

Applications

Activated carbon is used in gas purification, gold purification, metal extraction, water purification, medicine, sewage treatment, air filters in gas masks and respirators, filters in compressed air and many other applications.

One major industrial application involves use of activated carbon in the metal finishing field. It is very widely employed for purification of electroplating solutions. For example, it is a main purification technique for removing organic impurities from bright nickel plating solutions. A variety of organic chemicals are added to plating solutions for improving their deposit qualities and for enhancing properties like brightness, smoothness, ductility, etc. Due to passage of direct current and electrolytic reactions of anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction, organic additives generate unwanted break down products in solution. Their excessive build up can adversely affect the plating quality and physical properties of deposited metal. Activated carbon treatment removes such impurities and restores plating performance to the desired level.

Analytical chemistry applications

Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of carbohydrates (mono-, di- trisacchardes) using ethanol solutions (5–50%) as mobile phase in analytical or preparative protocols.

Environmental applications

Activated carbon is usually used in water filtration systems. In this illustration, the activated carbon is in the fourth level (counted from bottom).

Carbon adsorption has numerous applications in removing pollutants from air or water streams both in the field and in industrial processes such as:

In 2007, West-Flanders University (in Belgium) began research in water treatment after festivals.[6] A full scale activated carbon installation was built at the Dranouter music festival in 2008, with plans to utilize the technology to treat water at this festival for the next 20 years.[6]

Activated carbon is also used for the measurement of radon concentration in air.

Medical applications

Activated carbon is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion.

It is thought to bind to poison and prevent its absorption by the gastrointestinal tract. In cases of suspected poisoning, medical personnel administer activated carbon on the scene or at a hospital++++s emergency department. Dosing is usually empirical at 1 gram/kg of body mass (for adolescents or adults, give 50–100 g), usually given only once, but depending on the drug taken, it may be given more than once. In rare situations activated carbon is used in Intensive Care to filter out harmful drugs from the blood stream of poisoned patients. Activated carbon has become the treatment of choice for many poisonings, and other decontamination methods such as ipecac-induced emesis or stomach pumping are now used rarely.

Activated charcoal for medical use

While activated carbon is useful in acute poisoning, it has been shown to not be effective in long term accumulation of toxins, such as with the use of toxic herbicides.[7]

Mechanisms of action:

Incorrect application (e.g. into the lungs) results in pulmonary aspiration which can sometimes be fatal if immediate medical treatment is not initiated.[8] The use of activated carbon is contraindicated when the ingested substance is an acid, an alkali, or a petroleum product.

For pre-hospital (paramedic) use, it comes in plastic tubes or bottles, commonly 12.5 or 25 grams, pre-mixed with water. The trade names include InstaChar, SuperChar, Actidose, Charcodote, and Liqui-Char, but it is commonly called activated charcoal.

Ingestion of activated carbon prior to consumption of alcoholic beverages appeared to reduce absorption of ethanol into the blood. 5 to 15 milligrams of charcoal per kilogram of body weight taken at the same time as 170 ml of pure ethanol (which equals to about 10 servings of an alcoholic beverage), over the course of one hour, seemed to reduce potential blood alcohol content.[9] Yet other studies showed that this is not the case, and that ethanol blood concentrations were increased because of activated charcoal use.[10]

Charcoal biscuits were sold in England starting in the early 19th century, originally as an antidote to flatulence and stomach trouble.[11]

Tablets or capsules of activated carbon are used in many countries as an over-the-counter drug to treat diarrhea, indigestion, and flatulence.[12] Previous versions of this article have claimed that evidence exists that it is effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS),[13], but the reference study given did not use activated carbon (or activated charcoal), rather tablets of non-activated charcoal. It has also been used to prevent diarrhea in cancer patients who have received irinotecan.[14] It can interfere with the absorption of some medications, and lead to unreliable readings in medical tests such as the guaiac card test.[15] Activated carbon is also used for bowel preparation by reducing intestinal gas content before abdominal radiography to visualize bile and pancreatic and renal stones. A type of charcoal biscuit has also been marketed as a pet care product.[16]

Fuel storage

Research is being done testing various activated carbons++++ ability to store natural gas and hydrogen gas. The porous material acts like a sponge for different types of gasses. The gas is attracted to the carbon material via Van der Waals forces. Some carbons have been able to achieve bonding energies of 5–10 kJ per mol. The gas may then be desorbed when subjected to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell. Gas storage in activated carbons is an appealing gas storage method because the gas can be stored in a low pressure, low mass, low volume environment that would be much more feasible than bulky on board compression tanks in vehicles. The United States Department of Energy has specified certain goals to be achieved in the area of research and development of nano-porous carbon materials. As of yet all of the goals are yet to be satisfied but numerous institutions, including the ALL-CRAFT program[17], are continuing to conduct work in this promising field.

Gas purification

Filters with activated carbon are usually used in compressed air and gas purification to remove oil vapors, odors, and other hydrocarbons from the air. The most common designs use a 1 stage or 2 stage filtration principle in which activated carbon is embedded inside the filter media. Activated carbon is also used in spacesuit Primary Life Support Systems. Activated carbon filters are used to retain radioactive gases from a nuclear boiling water reactor turbine condenser. The air vacuumed from the condenser contains traces of radioactive gases. The large charcoal beds adsorb these gases and retain them while they rapidly decay to non-radioactive solid species. The solids are trapped in the charcoal particles, while the filtered air passes through.

Chemical purification

Activated carbon is commonly used to purify solutions containing un-wanted colored impurities such as during a recrystallization procedure in Organic Chemistry.

Distilled alcoholic beverage purification

Activated carbon filters can be used to filter vodka and whiskey of organic impurities which can affect color, taste, and odor. Passing an organically impure vodka through an activated carbon filter at the proper flow rate will result in vodka with an identical alcohol content and significantly increased organic purity, as judged by odor and taste.[citation needed]

Mercury scrubbing

Activated carbon, often impregnated with iodine or sulfur, is widely used to trap mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations, medical incinerators, and from natural gas at the wellhead. This carbon is a specialty product costing more than US$4.00 per kg. However, it is often not recycled.

Disposal in the USA after absorbing mercury

The mercury laden activated carbon presents a disposal dilemma.[18] If the activated carbon contains less than 260 ppm mercury, Federal regulations allow it to be stabilized (for example, trapped in concrete) for landfilling.[citation needed] However, waste containing greater than 260 ppm is considered to be in the high mercury subcategory and is banned from landfilling (Land-Ban Rule).[citation needed] It is this material which is now accumulating in warehouses and in deep abandoned mines at an estimated rate of 1000 tons per year.[citation needed]

The problem of disposal of mercury laden activated carbon is not unique to the U.S. In the Netherlands this mercury is largely recovered[19] and the activated carbon is disposed of by complete burning.

 


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